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  Most popular articles (Since April 20, 2016)

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of efficacy of 2% lidocaine gel and 20% benzocaine gel for topical anesthesia
Amit Garg, Nisha Garg, Damanpreet Kaur, Sunila Sharma, Ibrahim Abu Tahun, Rajneesh Kumar
January-June 2016, 28(1):38-41
DOI:10.4103/0970-7212.184338  
Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the pain produced from needle insertion at bilateral labial site prepared with topical application of 2% lidocaine gel, 20% benzocaine gel, and placebo paste at subsequent visits in a same patient. Materials and Methods: Forty healthy individuals aged 18-30 years old were subjected to three sessions in which they were treated with 2% lidocaine gel, 20% benzocaine gel, and placebo paste. in all sessions, a 26-gauge needle was inserted in maxillary labial mucosa before and 1 min after the drug application. Immediately, after needle insertion, participants indicated pain intensity on visual analog scale (VAS). Results and Conclusions: Pain responses were compared based on subjects' self-report using VAS. Results showed that lidocaine and benzocaine were equally effective, and both were better than placebo in reducing the pain of needle insertion.
  33,651 697 5
CASE REPORTS
Negotiating the bends: An endodontic management of curved canals – A case series
Mithra Nidarsh Hegde, Anish Kumar Lagisetti, Manjiri N Honap
July-December 2017, 29(2):160-163
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_41_17  
Negotiating the dilacerated and S-shaped roots often present a challenging situation in their Endodontic treatment. An insight of canal anatomy, coronal preflaring, precurving of all the hand instruments and use of smaller number files facilitates easy negotiation of canal curvature and maintenance of the shape without any procedural mishaps. All hand files are used in present cases with balanced force technique which has advantages of less extrusion of debris, less iatrogenic errors, and maintenance of instrument centrally. A thorough assessment of preoperative radiographs coupled with careful approach yielded into a safe and a successful endodontic treatment of such teeth. This case series presents two such interesting cases of endodontic management of curved canals.
  16,020 1,359 -
Diagnostic and therapeutic approach in dens in dente
Walid Lejri, Ines Kallel, Omar Marwen, Nabiha Douki
July-December 2016, 28(2):192-198
DOI:10.4103/0970-7212.195432  
The dental invagination is an abnormal dental development merely agreed to be a gene-related disorder. There are three types of invaginations, of which Type I is the most common. The diagnosis is based on clinical and above all radiological examinations. An early prophylactic approach is often the most effective mean of treatment. This paper describes the clinical and radiographic features related to the different types of dens invaginatus and the therapeutic approach through several cases.
  9,322 741 3
Retrieval of fractured Ni-Ti rotary instrument using ultrasonics and file braiding technique under surgical operating microscope
Velmurugan Natanasabapathy, Sathish Sundar, Vishnupriya Koteeswaran
January-June 2017, 29(1):65-68
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_116_16  
During routine endodontic therapy, a clinician may encounter many procedural errors and obstacles which may alter the course of treatment; one such error is instrument separation. A separated instrument prevents complete cleaning and shaping of the root canal and this might potentially influence the course of the treatment. Hence, every attempt must be made to retrieve the broken instrument. There are various instrument retrieval kits and chairside techniques available for this purpose. The present case report is about the successful retrieval of separated nickel-titanium rotary instrument with the help of ultrasonics and file braiding technique under surgical operating microscope.
  8,988 853 -
Management of anterior tooth trauma: Two case reports
Suman Kaushik, Ritu Sharma, Vikram Sharma, Gaurav Setya, Garima Assudani, Anshul Arora
January-June 2016, 28(1):64-67
DOI:10.4103/0970-7212.184345  
Various treatment options may be employed for coronal fracture of anterior teeth and root, depending on the level of fracture. The following case reports highlight the anterior tooth trauma managed with reattachment of fractured segments using post and cores. In the first case, an easy and ultraconservative technique without any tooth preparation is used which involves intraradicular support, i.e., fiber post and core. In the second case, an interdisciplinary approach is used to treat the root fracture where biological width was encroached. The flap was raised to expose the fractured root with a small amount of osteoplasty so that the segments could be checked for exact fit and bonding can be done with proper isolation of the operating field. Successful esthetics and function were restored by conservative and economical means, and 6 months follow-up showed no failure of bonding or postoperative pain, indicating crown, and horizontal root fracture after trauma should not go for extraction.
  7,998 860 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Advanced methods for identification of middle mesial canal in mandibular molars: An in vitro study
Seema Mehrish Chavda, Sunita Anandswaroop Garg
July-December 2016, 28(2):92-96
DOI:10.4103/0970-7212.195425  
Introduction: Failures of root canal treatment are mainly due to missed canals and ignorance about the anatomy of the root canal system. The middle mesial (MM) canal is one such type of canal in mandibular molars which is often missed. The aim of this study was to identify MM canals first with unaided eyes, then after troughing, followed by magnification and to compare it with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted mandibular first and second molars were taken. Preoperative CBCT scans were done for these intact teeth, which were not studied at this stage. Access cavities were made and detection and negotiation of the MM canals was done first with unaided eyes, followed by other added aids like troughing and magnification. Then, CBCT scans were evaluated to compare the incidence obtained and to study the configuration of the found canals. Results: The number of MM canal found with unaided eyes was 29% and 46% in the first and second molars which increased to 41.6% and 50% after troughing the groove between mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canal. It further increased to 45.85% and 53.8% after magnification. CBCT analysis showed same number of canals, but studying the canal configuration, clinically helped in negotiation of five otherwise nonnegotiable canals. Ninety percent of MM canals in the first molars and 100% in the second molars were confluent type, whereas 10% in the first molars were independent type. Conclusion: Troughing, magnification, and CBCT can help us in better identification and negotiation of otherwise difficult to find MM canals.
  7,618 1,168 6
Root canal morphology and assessment of incidence, type, and position of isthmus in permanent mandibular central incisor in North Indian population: An in vitro study
Surekha Puri Bhat, Rahul Sheth, Pravin Kumar, Ankita Khilosiya
July-December 2017, 29(2):107-114
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_24_17  
Background and Objectives: Mandibular incisor's anatomy presents a challenge when making endodontic access because of its small size and high prevalence of two canals and isthmus within them. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the root canal anatomy and its aberrant morphology in mandibular central incisors. Knowing the variations in canal anatomy such as two canals, presence of isthmus, type, its prevalence, and position in the mandibular central incisors, which help improve the procedure of successful root canal treatment. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty extracted human mandibular central incisor teeth were collected. Two different studies have been performed. Sixty teeth were studied through tooth clearing and dye penetration technique. Teeth were decalcified with 5% nitric acid, dehydrated with increasing concentrations of alcohol and rendered clear by immersion in methyl salicylate. Hematoxylin dye was inserted in access cavity and canals. The samples were observed under dental operating microscope. These samples were evaluated for root canal morphology to assess its root canal configuration. Sixty teeth were studied through sectioning of apical 3 mm (1, 2, and 3 mm from the apex) simulating a surgical resection method was followed. The sectioned samples were observed under stereomicroscope for evaluating isthmus and its type. Results and Conclusion: Sectioning study showed that canal shapes varied from round to oval, long oval, and ribbon shaped, while the prevalence of isthmus was more at 3 mm section. Tooth clearing study showed that 46.6% teeth had single canal, 49.8% teeth had two canals, and only 5% teeth had two separate apical foramina.
  7,085 529 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Endodontic and dental practice during COVID-19 pandemic: Position statement from the Indian Endodontic Society, Indian Dental Association, and International Federation of Endodontic Associations
Jogikalmat Krithikadatta, Ruchika Roongta Nawal, Kurinji Amalavathy, William McLean, Velayutham Gopikrishna
April-June 2020, 32(2):55-66
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_61_20  
The emergence of COVID-19 pandemic poses an immense global health challenge. As dental care providers, we are faced with significant responsibilities both to the dental team and our patients to limit exposure to the virus. Due to the nature of our work, the team are at a high risk of contracting the virus and potentially transmitting the virus. One of the prime modes of containing this pandemic is in enforcing effective social distancing. However, as dental care providers, we face the twin challenge of protecting ourselves and our patients from community transmission and at the same time ensuring patients continue to have access to urgent/emergency dental care. This position statement is for the benefit of endodontists and dentists and provides an objective method of streamlining their dental practices based on need and evidence-based disease containment protocols.
  6,603 960 -
CASE REPORTS
Endodontic treatment of the maxillary central incisor with sequelae of dental trauma
Luiz Fernando Machado Silveira, Josue Martos, Melissa Feres Damian, Karoline Von Ahn Pinto
January-June 2016, 28(1):46-49
DOI:10.4103/0970-7212.184340  
Dental trauma in immature teeth with necrotic pulp and apical foramen with large thin and fragile walls becomes a challenge to treat conventional endodontic treatment. The objective of this report is to demonstrate a clinical case in which the apexification through calcium hydroxide-based dressing, succeeded in forming a calcified apical barrier. It concluded that a barrier with mineral trioxide aggregate superimposed with the endodontic obturation of gutta-percha advocated in the central incisor led to a successful endodontic procedure.
  6,619 416 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of new irrigating solutions on smear layer removal and calcium ions chelation from the root canal: An in vitro study
Anika Mittal, Shifali Dadu, Bidya Yendrembam, Anju Abraham, Neetu Sharma Singh, Paridhi Garg
January-June 2018, 30(1):55-61
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_71_17  
Background: The action of endodontic instruments leads to the formation of smear layer during biomechanical preparation. Smear layer removal not only enhances the three-dimensional sealing of the root canal system but also improves the dentinal tubule disinfection. Aim: With the help of scanning electron microscope (SEM), assessing the effectiveness of smear layer removal from the root canal wall using various final irrigating solutions, and to quantify, the concentration of calcium ions in these solutions after irrigation using atomic absorption spectrophotometry with flame. Materials and Methods: Forty human maxillary canines were selected and prepared and the final irrigation was performed to quantify the concentration of calcium ions released with 0.2% chitosan, apple cider vinegar, and 15% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), which were then composed and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. From the middle and apical thirds of the root canal, the smear layer removal was evaluated using SEM. Results: There was statistically significant difference between 0.2% chitosan and the other solutions with regard to smear layer removal. The highest concentrations of calcium ions were obtained with apple cider vinegar followed by 0.2% chitosan and 15% EDTA. Conclusion: Nearly 0.2% chitosan showed greater smear layer removal as compared to apple cider vinegar which enhanced the release of the highest concentrations of calcium ions than the other solutions verified.
  5,860 791 -
CASE REPORTS
High strength and bonding achieved with new flexible EverStick posts: A case report
Asit Vats, Sanjeev Srivastava, Mitali Kukreja, HS Chhabra
July-December 2016, 28(2):188-191
DOI:10.4103/0970-7212.195429  
Tooth structure that remains after endodontic treatment has been undermined and weakened by all of the previous episodes of caries, fracture, tooth preparation, or restoration. A post and core becomes a necessity in most of the cases. The tooth is further weakened when the clinician decides to give a full coverage crown which leads to greater tooth structure loss. In these two case reports, a novel technique has been discussed involving a new material in which lost tooth structure is restored by means of direct composite resin. The teeth following the treatment are structurally strong and possess good esthetics.
  5,910 734 2
EDITORIALS
Revolutionary development of endodontic instruments and its implications
Hyeon-Cheol Kim
July-December 2016, 28(2):90-91
DOI:10.4103/0970-7212.195419  
  4,034 2,367 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
An in vitro comparison of push-out bond strength of biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregate in the presence of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate
Shishir Singh, Rajesh Podar, Shifali Dadu, Gaurav Kulkarni, Snehal Vivrekar, Shashank Babel
January-June 2016, 28(1):42-45
DOI:10.4103/0970-7212.184339  
Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the push-out bond strength of Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fosses, France) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil) when treated with 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX). Materials and Methods: Forty-six single canal premolars were selected for this study, and the canal spaces were prepared with #5 Gates glidden drill (1.3 mm diameter). The dentin of these teeth was horizontally sectioned into 1-mm-thick slices at the mid-root level. The samples were divided into two groups (n = 20). Biodentine and MTA were placed into the canal space of dentin slices. The samples were wrapped in wet gauze for 10 min and divided into two subgroups (n = 10) to be immersed into 3% NaOCl and 2% CHX for 30 min. No irrigation was performed in the controls (n = 3). After incubation for 48 h, the dislodgement resistance of the samples was measured using a universal testing machine. The samples were examined under a stereomicroscope to determine the nature of the bond failures. Results: Biodentine showed significantly higher push-out bond strength than MTA (P < 0.05) in the presence of both NaOCl and CHX. Within the MTA group, CHX further reduced the push-out bond strength when compared with NaOCl. Conclusion: Push-out bond strength is the force needed for the displacement of the dental material tested. The various irrigants used during the root canal therapy may increase or decrease the push-out bond strength of a material.
  5,681 703 2
CASE REPORTS
Pulpectomy using mineral trioxide aggregate of a nonvital primary molar with no permanent premolar successor
Nesrine Tebbeb, Sonia Zouiten, Hanen Chafra, Abdellatif Boughzala
July-December 2017, 29(2):164-168
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_48_17  
Physiological root resorption is a known phenomenon for deciduous teeth with uncertain etiologic factors. The initiation of root resorption could be due to the injury or the infection of the pulp. The physiological, esthetic, and functional consequences of treating primary teeth without permanent successors make it a unique challenge. The aim of this article was to present the treatment, and long-term follow-up of a case in mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was used in the pulpectomy of a nonvital primary molar with no permanent successor in a 14-year-old child. The treatment was root canal treatment and total obturation using MTA. Follow-up examinations were done and showed a radiographic healing of the periapical radiolucency and resorption of mesial root. Furthermore, the tooth was asymptomatic and clinically functional.
  5,369 601 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antimicrobial activity of different biological extracts as intracanal medicament against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study
Muktishree Mahendra, Nikita Agrawal, Swapna Munaga, Sanjeev Tyagi
July-December 2016, 28(2):166-170
DOI:10.4103/0970-7212.195433  
Introduction: A successful endodontic treatment depends upon complete debridement of microflora from the root canal system. However, due to complex root canal configuration, complete debridement through mechanical instrumentation alone cannot remove entire bacterial load. So the aim is in vitro evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of biological extracts against Enterococcus faecalis MTCC-439 strain when used as intracanal medicaments. The medicaments used were Nissin, an antibiotic peptide; neem known for its antiseptic properties; platelet rich plasma (PRP) known for its regenerative properties and propolis, a resin extract derived from bees. Materials and Methods: Sixty single rooted lower premolar teeth which were extracted for orthodontic purpose were collected. Tooth specimens were sectioned at cement-enamel junction with a diamond saw to obtain a standard root length. The root canals of the specimen were instrumented with K3 rotary files followed by inoculation of E. faecalis strains and sealed with dental wax. The specimens were then kept in incubator for 21 days at 37°C and after that randomly divided into six treatment groups: Group I, 5 μL Normal saline; Group II, 5 μL Nisin (Vasta Biotech, Chennai); Group III, 5 μL propolis; Group IV, 5 μL neem; Group V, 5 μL PRP; Group VI, 5 μL Calcium hydroxide. Roots were then incubated for 7 days at 37°C. On 8th day, to evaluate the degree of infection, dentin chips from root canal of specimens were extracted with a sterile 6% K3 rotary file. Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U-test were applied for difference in colony forming units (CFUs) count for different medicaments. Results: In present in vitro study, Nisin showed no CFU while neem and propolis showed significantly less growth as compared to PRP and calcium hydroxide against E. faecalis. Conclusions: Nisin outreach propolis and neem in eliminating the E. faecalis when used as intracanal medicaments.
  5,182 705 3
Comparative evaluation of efficacy of three different irrigation activation systems in debridement of root canal isthmus: An in vitro study
Sunanda Gadaalay, Shruti Ishwar Hariramani, Praveen Dhore, Anita Kale, Madhuri Agrawal, Saurabh Doshi
January-June 2017, 29(1):39-42
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_4_17  
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different irrigation activation devices in removing debris from the isthmus area of mandibular molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 extracted human mandibular molars were selected, and access cavity was prepared. After determining the working length, instrumentation was done till ProTaper F2 with simultaneous irrigation with 5.25% NaOCl and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Later, the samples were divided into five groups containing ten samples each, that is, Endo-Irrigator Plus, EndoActivator, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), manual dynamic activation (MDA), and control group. About 5.25% NaOCl was used for irrigation activation. Mesial roots were sectioned 4 mm from the apex and observed under a stereomicroscope at ×× 10 magnification for the presence of debris. Results: The Endo-Irrigator Plus demonstrated the least amount of debris followed by EndoActivator, PUI, MDA, and then control. There was statistically significant difference between the first three groups and MDI and control. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the first three groups. Conclusion: In this study, none of the devices were able to remove the debris completely. Nevertheless, Endo-Irrigator Plus, EndoActivator, and PUI could be used as effective irrigation activation devices.
  5,148 634 -
Calcium ion release from four different light-cured calcium hydroxide cements
Wasifoddin A Chaudhari, Robin J Jain, Sameer K Jadhav, Vivek S Hegde, Manisha V Dixit
July-December 2016, 28(2):114-118
DOI:10.4103/0970-7212.195426  
Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare calcium (Ca) ion-releasing capacity of four different light-cured calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] cements with self-cured Ca(OH)2cement. Materials and Methods: Five different brands of Ca(OH)2cements were taken and they were grouped into five groups which are as follows: Group I - Dycal (control group), Group II - Septocal, Group III – TheraCal, Group IV - Cal LC, and Group V - Hydrocal. All specimens (n = 50) were prepared by mixing and curing the cements as per manufacturer's instructions. Each sample was placed on the bottom of a 4 cm high test tube in 10 ml deionized water at 37°C. This stored water was collected for Ca analysis and replaced after 7, 14, and 21 days. In this manner, ion release was measured after 7, 14, and 21 days by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy test. Results: Ca ion release from all groups at various time durations was measured and mean was calculated along with the standard deviation. These values were compared using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test which showed highly significant result with P< 0.001. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, light-cured Ca(OH)2cements released high amount of Ca ions compared to self-cured Ca(OH)2cements. Group V (Hydrocal) and Group III (TheraCal) were found to be the highest light-cured Ca ion releasing materials.
  4,997 637 4
A comparative clinical study on the correlation of working length determined using three different electronic apex locators with radiographic working length: An in vivo study
Devi S Lekshmy, PR Deepthi, C Ganesh, George Chacko, A Abhilash, SL Satheesh, Lakshmi Aravind, Siddharth V Nair, Sreeja Sreedhar
January-June 2016, 28(1):18-22
DOI:10.4103/0970-7212.184325  
Aim: This in vivo study was done to correlate the values of three different electronic apex locators: Root ZX, iPex, and Apex ID, with the radiographic working length (WL). Materials and Methods: Nineteen maxillary incisors with completely formed root apices indicated for endodontic treatment were chosen. After access preparation, coronal flaring and pulp extirpation, electronic measurement of WL was done with a No: 15 K file using the three devices on each tooth. A WL radiograph was then taken with the file placed within the canal and the length determined by following Ingle's method. The data were then analyzed using the correlation coefficient and Z-test. Results: Root ZX showed the maximum correlation (r = 0.9881) with radiographic WL followed by Apex ID (R = 0.9731) and iPex (R = 0.9508). Root ZX had a statistically significant higher correlation with radiographic WL in comparison with iPex (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Maximum correlation of readings with the radiographic length was shown by Root ZX followed by Apex ID and then by iPex.
  4,986 505 2
CASE REPORTS
Healing of recurrent sinus tract after retrograde endodontic treatment of an associated lateral canal
Ritu Sharma, Ruhanijot Kaur Cheema
July-December 2016, 28(2):179-182
DOI:10.4103/0970-7212.195436  
A case report of the management of recurrent sinus tract associated with lateral canal is presented. In this report, a patient reported with a recurrent sinus tract after primary endodontic therapy. The sinus tract was traced with a gutta-percha point, which suggested the point of origin at the middle third of the root. An exploratory surgery revealed a lateral canal with extruded sealer. The canal was retroprepared and sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate. The sinus tract healed uneventfully. Postoperative healing of 18 months is presented. This case report demarcates the importance of lateral canals in endodontic pathosis.
  5,158 293 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Smear layer removal efficacy of herbal extracts used as endodontic irrigants: An in vitro study
MA Sebatni, AA Kumar
January-June 2017, 29(1):35-38
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_3_17  
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the smear layer removal efficacy of various herbal extracts, namely, green tea extract, orange oil, and neem leaf extract using the scanning electron microscopic analysis. Materials and Methods: The samples were divided into four groups having ten teeth each (n = 10); the groups were divided accordingly, Group A: sodium hypochlorite (control), Group B: green tea extract, Group C: orange oil, and Group D: neem leaf extract. Each tooth was then split longitudinally and was prepared for examination by scanning electron microscope under ×1500 and ×3000. Statistical Analysis: The smear layer removal scores were compared statistically within the groups using analysis of variance and Tukey's honest significant difference test (P < 0.05). Results: The canals treated with neem leaf extract exhibited significant smear layer removal when compared to those treated with orange oil, sodium hypochlorite, and green tea extract. Conclusion: The highest amount of smear layer removal efficacy was seen in the canals treated by neem leaf extract.
  4,654 784 -
Identification of presence of Candida albicans in primary root canal infections: An in vitro study
Nidhi Shah, KS Madhu, BV Sreenivasa Murthy, Beena Hemanth, Sylvia Mathew, Shruthi Nagaraj
July-December 2016, 28(2):109-113
DOI:10.4103/0970-7212.195440  
Introduction: Microorganisms are recognized as the etiological agents for the majority of pulpal and periradicular diseases. Although bacteria are most researched, the contribution of fungi in endodontic infections is neglected. However, Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated fungi from the endodontic infections. Their identification is crucial for effective diagnosis and treatment planning. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the presence of C. albicans in primary root canal infections using culture technique. Materials and Methods: Fifty root canal samples from primary endodontic infections were collected using file and paper point following disinfection protocol. Samples were inoculated in Sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated for 2–3 days. Taxonomy was evaluated using Gram-staining and germ tube test by macroscopic examination and optical microscopy. Results: Four out of 50 samples showed positive for C. albicans. Conclusion: This study confirmed the prevalence of 8% of C. albicans in primary endodontic infection.
  4,830 587 1
EDITORIALS
Editorial
Sanjay Miglani
July-December 2016, 28(2):89-89
DOI:10.4103/0970-7212.195420  
  1,887 3,429 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Determination of root canal configuration and the prevalence of “C-shaped” canals in mandibular second molar in central and South Gujarat population: An in vitro study
Tapati Manohar Sinhal, Ruchi Rani Purvesh Shah, Nimisha Chinmay Shah, Pratik Subhas Jais, Krupali Dhirubhai Hadwani
July-December 2017, 29(2):90-94
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_39_17  
Aims: The aim of the present study was to determine the canal configuration and the prevalence of “C-shaped” canals in mandibular second molar in Central and South Gujarat population. Materials and Methods: A total of 122 mandibular second molar teeth were collected and stored in 10% formalin. Identification of these teeth as mandibular second molar was confirmed by two independent observers. An endodontic access cavity was then prepared in each tooth. Then, they were injected with India ink and demineralized, they were made clear and transparent with methyl salicylate. Then, anatomy of their canals was studied. Results: Out of 122 mandibular second molars, prevalence of “C-shaped” canals was 10.65% (13 teeth). These configurations were seen mostly in single-rooted mandibular second molars. Out of five categories of “C-shape,” predominantly found category was (C1) – 46.15%. Conclusion: Hard tissue of mandibular second molar contains dental pulp which can take a variety of configurations and shapes. The great differences reported among studies with regards to anatomy of the mandibular second molars and prevalence of “C-shaped” canals may be attributable to study methods and racial differences.
  3,786 1,286 -
CASE REPORTS
Retrieval of separated instrument from the root canal using ultrasonics: Report of three cases
Ashtha Arya, Anshul Arora, Gourav Thapak
January-June 2019, 31(1):121-124
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_25_18  
One of the most frequent mishaps during root canal procedure is the separation of an endodontic instrument during biomechanical preparation. It prevents proper debridement of the canal apical to the fragment and compromises the success of the treatment. Development in techniques and armamentarium has led to successful retrieval of separated instrument from the root canal. Adequate knowledge, good clinical skill, and experience enable good management of instrument fractured in the root canal. In this report, we present three cases with separated instruments in the root canal which were successfully retrieved with the use of ultrasonics under magnification.
  4,375 583 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinical evaluation of maintenance of apical patency in postendodontic pain: An in vivo study
Nisha Garg, Shruti Sharma, Ajay Chhabra, Aarushi Dogra, Ruhani Bhatia, Savita Thakur
July-December 2017, 29(2):115-119
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_28_17  
Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of postoperative pain in 80 endodontically treated teeth, with and without apical patency, in relation to some diagnostic factors (vitality, presence of preoperative pain, group of treated teeth). Materials and Methodology: Apical patency was maintained during shaping procedures with a #10 K-file in one group (n = 40) and not in the other (n = 40). Root canal treatment was done in single visit. Pain was recorded 1st day, 2nd day and 7th day using VAS scale. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between patency and non patency groups regarding incidence and degree of postoperative pain. Only preoperative pain has significant effect on postoperative pain. Conclusion: Our study concluded that maintenance of apical patency did not increase the incidence of postoperative pain when considering all variables together.
  4,342 535 5